Below are some of the sources I've been using in the Water Project here on Alcademics. I'll update this page as I use more resources and read more books.
Fix the Pumps. This book by Darcy O'Neil about vintage soda fountains also has information about mineral waters, which were once made-to-order. It includes practical information about how to keg soda waters, and list some not-so-practical recipes for commercial soda waters (as they're 20 liter+ batches), but there is good information about how to properly get minerals into solution with carbonation.
Khymos. This blog has an amazing resource - a list of all the minerals in various commercial bottled waters, plus a spreadsheet that helps calculate how to make versions of them at home by adding your own mineral salts and carbonating. The two relevant pages are the original DIY Mineral Water post and then an updated page Mineral Waters A La Carte.
Fine Waters by Michael Mascha. This is the book on bottled water, written by a water sommelier. Not on the history or environmental consequences of it - there are plenty of those- but on categorization of bottled waters by carbonation, dissolved solid content, and pH. Plus there is great information on pairing water with food and wine. Most of the information from the book is also available on his website FineWaters.com.
MineralWaters.org. This site, which looks a bit out of date, lists information about water, drinking statistics, and water analyses. It also allows you do do things like sort brands of water by factors like pH and mineral content.
What to Drink with What you Eat by Andrew Dornenburg and Karen Page. On pages 276-277, they include what to pair with waters of different carbonation levels (based on the Fine Waters scale). For example, Boldly carbonated bottled water such as Perrier and Saratoga Springs pairs with: crispy appetizers, chips, fried food, hamburgers, especially with cheese, hor d'oeuvres, nuts, fried oysters, and pizza.
The Water Project on Alcademics is research into water in spirits and in cocktails, from the streams that feed distilleries to the soda water that dilutes your highball. For all posts in the project, visit the project index page.